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**Properties of Solutions**

Solubility of Gases in liquids - Henry's Law

The solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas. The mathematical expression of this phenomenon is called "Henry's law." Henry's law has the form,

where

Example,

Using Henry's law we find

which is about 8 mg per liter.

**Colligative Properties**

Colligative means "depending on the number of particles and not on the nature of the particles." There are four properties of solutions that depend only on the fact that there are fewer molecules of solvent per unit volume in a solution than there are in the pure solvent. These properties are:

Vapor pressure reduction (Raoult's law)Boiling point elevation

Freezing point depression

Osmotic pressure.

**Raoult's Law**

We know that the vapor pressure is caused by molecules escaping from the surface of a liquid into the gas phase. There is a competition between the intermolecular forces trying to keep the molecules in the liquid and the kinetic energy trying to release the molecules. At any given temperature there is a distribution of kinetic energies and some fraction of molecules will have enough energy to escape. If we increase the temperature that fraction is larger and the vapor pressure increases.

There is another way to influence the vapor pressure of a liquid. If we can reduce the number of molecules at the surface then here will be fewer molecules to escape and the vapor pressure of the solvent will decrease.

The number of molecules at the surface of a liquid is
proportional to the mole fraction of the liquid, *X*_{solvent},
so that the vapor pressure should be proportional to the mole fraction.
Raoult's law makes this statement into an equation,

Where

For example, the vapor pressure of water is 23.8 Torr
at 25^{o}C. If we dissolve one mol of sugar (a nonionic compound)
in nine mol of water the mole fraction of water is 0.90. The vapor pressure
of water in the solution becomes,

Note that we are counting particles so that mole fraction has to be the mole fraction of particles. If we had used NaCl in the above example the one mol of NaCl would give two mol of particles (Na

**Boiling Point Elevation**

Boiling point elevation is relatively easy to understand from Raoult's law. If the vapor pressure goes down then we have to heat it to a higher temperature to get it to boil. The solvent vapor pressure in a solution is lower than the vapor pressure of the pure solvent so we have to heat the solution higher to make it boil.

You can write an equation for boiling point elevation in terms of mole fraction of the solvent, but it customary to write it in terms of molality of the solute instead. The equation for boiling point elevation is,

The

Example,

The boiling point of this solution is 101.7^{o}C.

Freezing point depression of a solvent by the addition of a solute is the principle behind the old-fashioned hand-cranked ice cream freezers. The container of cream and flavorings is placed in a slush of ice and salt (NaCl) and stirred until it is frozen. Plain ice will not produce the desired result. The last lowers the freezing point of the water to the place that it will freeze the cream mixture.

The vapor pressure lowering argument is still valid, but it is not as simple as it was in boiling point elevation. We have to add two bits of new information.

Two, if ice and water are in equilibrium then the vapor pressures of the ice and water must be the same. (Otherwise the higher vapor pressure stuff would evaporate and condense out as the lower vapor pressure stuff and we would lose one component.)

All of this is expressed in a freezing point equation,
with a new constant, *k*_{fp}, the freezing point lowering
constant,

or

in the case of ionic solutes.

In this situation the freezing point constant is negative
so that D*T* is negative. Here, again,
the freezing point constant depends only on the properties of the solvent.
The only solute dependence comes from the molality of the solvent (and
we count the molality of particles).

Example,

35.7 g/100mL is 357 g/L or approximately 6.1 molal.

Freezing point depression is often used to measure the formula weights of compounds. Placing a weighed amount of solute in a known mass of solvent one measures the freezing point depression. With this information you can calculate the molality of the solution and then you can what the formula weight of the compound must be to give that molality. The formula would look like this,

in which everything is known except the formula weight, FW.

**Osmotic Pressure**

There are other ways to influence the vapor pressure of a liquid or solution other than changing the temperature or adding a solute. If we "squeeze" the liquid (of either a pure solvent or a solution) by adding and external pressure we increase the vapor pressure. (One way to apply and external pressure is to expose the liquid to the atmosphere, where it will be pressed by one atmosphere pressure. One can also apply external pressure with a piston or by putting the liquid in a tank and increasing the air pressure.

In osmotic pressure experiments we are trying to keep make the vapor pressure of a solution the same as the vapor pressure of the pure liquid (all without fooling around with the temperature). This is because we want the solution to be in equilibrium with the pure liquid. The pressure that must be applied to the solution is called the osmotic pressure and it is given the symbol, P (upper case pi).

For osmotic pressure it turns out that the natural unit of concentration of the solute is molarity rather than molality. The equation for osmotic pressure, P , is familiar equation,

If we recognize that the molarity,

Example,

Calculate the osmotic pressure of blood plasma at the normal human body temperature, 37^{o}C. Blood plasma has about the same osmotic pressure as 0.15 M NaCl (this is called an "isotonic solution"). As before, we must modify this equation for ionic solutions. That is we put in the van't Hoff factor which takes account of the fact that the number of particles is not the same as the number of moles in an ionic solution. So we write, for ionic solutions, Since the van't Hoff factor,i, is approximately 2 for NaCl, this becomes, 7.6 atm is about 112 psi.