## Chemical Thermodynamics

Introduction to Chemistry 480A
States of Matter, Variables, and Units
Ideal gas and van der Waals equations of state
The virial equations of state
Critical Points
Critical Constants for van der Walls Gas
Solids, Liquids, Thermometers, Ideal Gas Temperature Scale
Work, Energy, the First Law
pV Work, Reversible and Irreversible Processes
Heat and Heat Capacity
Energy, the First Law, and Enthalpy
Thermodynamic Equation of State, Relationship between Cp and CV
Thermochemistry, Making and Breaking Bonds, Ions In Water Solution
Exact and Inexact Differentials, in Thermodynamics
Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics
The Carnot Cycle
Consequences of the word statements of the Second law as derived from cycles
Second law - the equation
Second law - Applications: Definition of Equilibrium, Entropy Change Calculations
Entropy of Mixing - Ideal Gases;What Does Entropy Measure?
Helmholtz and Gibbs Free Energies; More Criteria for Equilibrium, Maxwell's Equations
Gibbs Free Energy and Chemical Reactions The "Driving Force" for Chemical Reactions
The Third Law of Thermodynamics; Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions
Gibbs Free Energy and Temperature - The Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation
Gibbs Free Energy and Pressure, Chemical Potential, Fugacity
Open Systems, Integration of dU, Gibbs-Duhem Equation
Phase Equilibrium
One-Component Phase Diagrams
Clapeyron and Clausius-Clapeyron Equations
The Melting Curve for Water; Vapor Pressure; Vapor Pressure Under External Pressure
Mixtures; Partial Molar Quantities: Ideal Solutions
Activity and Activity Coefficients
Vapor Pressure Diagrams; Henry's Law, Boiling Diagrams
Colligative Properties (Including Osmotic Pressure)
Gibbs Phase Rule
Two-Component Phase Diagrams and Cooling Curves
Chemical Equilibrium, K and K(T)
Ions in Solution, Ionic Strength, and DHLL
Electrochemistry I, Electrical work and Electrochemical Cells
Electrochemistry I, Continued, Half-Cells and Reduction Potentials
Electrochemistry II, Cells with no salt bridge, cell from reaction, and measuring Eo and the "average" activity coefficient

## Useful Mathematical Relations

The cyclic rule, sometimes referred to as Euler's chain relation.